Chad - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband - Statistics and Analyses: April 2018

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Executive summary

Chad increases tax on mobile operators

During the last decade Chad’s economy has been dominated by oil exports, and as a result economic growth has been adversely affected by the falling prices for the commodity on international markets. Economic difficulties, with a sharp fall in GDP recorded for 2017, have been exacerbated by civil unrest and by an influx of refugees from neighbouring countries. Declining revenue has encouraged the government to attempt to renegotiate the terms of licences which only grant it 12.5% of revenue from oil exports, while it has also endeavoured to access oil money held in an escrow account set up by the World Bank and intended to be used to alleviate poverty.

The country remains one of the least developed on the continent, while telecom infrastructure is particularly poor, with penetration rates in all sectors – fixed, mobile and internet –well below African averages. Nevertheless, despite difficult operating conditions, large scale poverty and low spending power, Chad’s telecom market offers some potential for investors to develop services given the low starting base.

The tax on mobile operators has been increased in stages in recent years, from 4% in 2014 to 7% in 2016. In January 2018 it was increased again, to 9%. Of this, the Treasury received 4%, the regulator 2.5%, the Information and Communication Technologies Development Agency (ADETIC) 1.5%, the National School of Information and Communication Technologies (ENASTIC) 0.6% and ANSCIE 0.4%. In addition to this tax an 18% excise duty was introduced in 2016 on telecom services, which has resulting in lower usage among subscribers and consequently a negative impact on operator revenue.

The two main operators Tigo Chad and Airtel Chad have invested in infrastructure and have become the main providers of voice and data services. However, the difficult economic conditions of the country, compounded by a tax on telecom services which has adversely affected customer spend and consequently on operator revenue, have encouraged these players to consider exiting the market. Tigo Chad’s parent company Millicom International entered into discussions with Orange Group in April 2017 and with Econet in the following October regarding a potential sale, while in May 2017 Bharti Aircom announced that Chad was one of its regional markets which it considered offloading.

The mobile sector has developed steadily under the auspices of Tigo Chad and Airtel Chad. The national telco and fixed-line operator Sotel Tchad (ST) operates the country’s third mobile network, as Salam Mobile. Salam Mobile is mainly focussed on voice services since its dependence on GPRS and EDGE technologies offer only basic mobile data services. The country’s first 3G/4G mobile licence was awarded in April 2014.

Chad finally gained access to international fibre bandwidth in 2012, but it still lacks a national backbone infrastructure to support efficient broadband services. However, the World Bank-funded Central African Backbone (CAB) project has made progress, and Chad is also party to a Trans-Saharan Backbone project which will link a fibre cable to Nigeria and Algeria. Investment in the national backbone is continuing though progress across all 12 sectors has been hampered by delays.

Key developments:

Regulator critical of MNOs’ poor quality of service; Presta Bist Telecoms increases satellite broadband capacity from O3b Networks by 66%; government introduces 18% tax on telecom services, tax on mobile operators increased to 9% from January 2018; Tigo Chad launches LTE, extends 3G to Abeche, N'Djamena and Moundou; continuing expansion of national fibre backbone infrastructure; Sotel and Camtel sign infrastructure expansion agreement; YooMee secures funding for LTE deployment; report update includes the regulator’s market updates, activity report for 2016, operator data to December 2017, Telecom Maturity Index tables, charts and analyses, recent market developments.

Companies mentioned in this report:

Sotel Tchad; TchadNet; Bharti Airtel (Airtel Chad); Millicom (Tigo Chad); Tchad Mobile (Orascom); Sitcom, Salam Mobile.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Executive summary
  • 2. Key statistics
  • 3. Country overview
  • 4. Telecommunications market
    • 4.1 Market analysis
  • 5. Regional African Market Comparison
    • 5.1 Mobile and mobile broadband
    • 5.2 Fixed and mobile broadband
    • 5.3 TMI vs GDP
  • 6. Regulatory environment
    • 6.1 Telecommunications Act 1998
    • 6.2 Regulatory authority
    • 6.3 Quality of service (QoS)
    • 6.4 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
  • 7. Fixed network operator
    • 7.1 Sotel Tchad
      • 7.1.1 Privatisation
      • 7.1.2 CDMA2000 WLL
      • 7.1.3 National backbone network (Sitcom)
  • 8. Telecommunications infrastructure
    • 8.1 Data centres
  • 9. International infrastructure
    • 9.1 Submarine fibre optic cables
    • 9.2 The Central African Backbone (CAB)
    • 9.3 Other projects
  • 10. Broadband market
    • 10.1 Introduction and statistical overview
      • 10.1.1 Market analysis
      • 10.1.2 Broadband statistics
      • 10.1.3 Fixed wireless (WiMAX, WiBro, Wi-Fi)
      • 10.1.4 Satellite broadband
  • 11. Mobile communications
    • 11.1 Market analysis
      • 11.1.1 Mobile statistics
      • 11.1.2 Mobile data
      • 11.1.3 Mobile broadband
    • 11.2 Mobile infrastructure
      • 11.2.1 Digital networks
    • 11.3 Other infrastructure developments
      • 11.3.1 Satellite mobile
    • 11.4 Major mobile operators
      • 11.4.1 Airtel Chad
      • 11.4.2 Tigo Chad
      • 11.4.3 Salam Mobile
      • 11.4.4 Tchad Mobile (defunct)
    • 11.5 Mobile content and applications
      • 11.5.1 Money transfer, m-banking
  • 12. Related reports
  • Table 1 – Country statistics Chad – 2017 (e)
  • Table 2 – Fixed network statistics – 2018 (e)
  • Table 3 – Internet provider statistics – 2018
  • Table 4 – Internet user statistics – 2018 (e)
  • Table 5 – Mobile statistics – 2018 (e)
  • Table 6 – National telecommunications authority
  • Table 7 – GDP in Chad – 2007- 2016
  • Table 8 –Telecom market revenue by sector – 2009 - 2015
  • Table 9 – Average annual telecom ARPU – 2008- 2015
  • Table 10 – National fibre backbone – section routes to be deployed
  • Table 11 – Historic - Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Chad – 1999 - 2009
  • Table 12 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Chad – 2010 - 2018
  • Table 13 – Fixed lines by type – 2008 - 2015
  • Table 14 – International internet bandwidth– 1999 - 2016
  • Table 15 – Historic - Internet users and penetration rate in Chad – 1998 - 2009
  • Table 16 – Internet users and penetration rate in Chad – 2010 - 2018
  • Table 17 – Fixed-line internet subscribers – 2009 - 2018
  • Table 18 – Fixed-line internet subscribers by alternative operators – 2010 - 2015
  • Table 19 – Total internet subscribers – 2009 - 2018
  • Table 20 – Internet sector revenue – 2011 - 2015
  • Table 21 - Mobile base stations in service - 2000 – 2015
  • Table 22 - Historic - Mobile subscribers and penetration rate in Chad - 2000 – 2009
  • Table 23 – Mobile subscribers and penetration rate in Chad – 2010 - 2018
  • Table 24 – Mobile market share of subscribers by operator – 2010 - 2015
  • Table 25 – Proportion of mobile subscribers by prepaid and contract – 2011 - 2015
  • Table 26 – Mobile voice traffic by operator – 2011 - 2015
  • Table 27 – SMS traffic – 2011 - 2018
  • Table 28 – Active mobile broadband subscribers and penetration – 2014 - 2018
  • Table 29 – Airtel Chad subscribers – 2005 - 2017
  • Table 30 – Tigo Chad subscribers – 2008 - 2017
  • Table 31 – Salam Mobile subscribers – 2012 - 2017
  • Table 12 – Tchad Mobile (defunct) subscribers – 2001 - 2004
  • Table 12 –Market share of m-money revenue by operator – 2014 - 2015
  • Chart 1 – Africa Telecoms Maturity Index – Market Laggards (bottom tier) - 2017
  • Chart 2 – Central Africa –Telecoms Maturity Index by country - 2017
  • Chart 3 – Central Africa mobile subscriber penetration versus mobile broadband penetration - 2017
  • Chart 4 – Central Africa fixed and mobile penetration rates - 2017
  • Chart 5 – Overall Africa view - Telecoms Maturity Index vs GDP per Capita - 2017
  • Chart 6 – Central Africa - Telecoms Maturity Index vs GDP per Capita - 2017
  • Chart 7 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Chad – 2005 – 2018
  • Chart 8 – Internet users and penetration rate in Chad – 2005 – 2018
  • Chart 9 – Mobile subscribers and penetration rate in Chad – 2000 - 2018
  • Exhibit 1 – Map of Chad
  • Exhibit 2 – Generalised Market Characteristics by Market Segment
  • Exhibit 3 – Central Africa - Key Characteristics of Telecoms Markets by Country